Act/Rule Utilitarianism, High/Low Pleasures
Business Ethics - PHILOS3235 - 2 February 2018
Principle of Utility: Actions are good that promote utility (pleasure/pain) and bad if they do inverse
|Act Utilitarian||Rule Utilitarian|
|Consequences figured out for each action||Don’t need to “reinvent the wheel” in terms of morality|
|Shouldn’t assume at the outset some actions preferred/off-limits (beyond utility)||Use time-tested “rules of thumb”: “do not kill”, “do not steal” (promote utility)|
Case #1: Hermit in the woods
Rich hermit/ 1000 villagers on the verge of death
What should be done?
|Murder - Last resort||Barter with him - try to appeal to him|
|Steal - if we don’t, 1000 could die||“do not kill”, “do not steal”|
|Incapacitate him||Corrosive effect on society|
Case #2: Voting
Should I vote?
|Is it worth the time? (Pre-decided voting states)||Civic duty|
|Societies that have higher voter turnout usually function better|
|Other obstacles, work etc.|
Quality vs Quantity
- Just maximize utility (whatever peoples preferences are)
- Thinks we actually prefer higher vs lower (we’re rational)
- Societies are happier that encourage higher over lower
Sandel’s Test - higher/lower
- What do we prefer?
- Which is higher?
|Hamlet Soliquoy||Fear Factor & Reality T.V. & WWE||Simpsons & South Park & Rick and Morty|