File Organization (Cont.)

Database Systems - CS2300 - 8 February 2018

Record i in an unordered, fixed length unspanned contigous file (relative file) can be accessed very easily, how?

ceil(i / bfr) will be equal to the block that you are trying to access, and the displacement will tell you the record

Above point might be on the exam

Ordered Files

  • Records will be sorted based on several ordering fields
  • In the case that the ordering field is also a key field, the field is also called the ordering key

Irrelevant info: Index is auxiliary information that we will use to find a position

Index files will add complexity, as they may need to be modified as files are deleted or modified. With ordered, much more so as many blocks may change at a time.


  • Allows us to establish a relationship between value and address.
  • Uses an input (value) as a parameter in a hashing function which results in an address
  • A good hashing function will distribute data evenly, minimalize collisions, and utilize space efficiently
  • Problems:
    • Collisions, if the hash mapping is not 1-1 (i.e. value is not unique, or function produces same output)
Internal Hashing
  • Happens in internal memory
External Hashing
  • Happens in external storage (disk)
  • The addresses are not to memory, but to blocks on the disk
  • Collisions are better in external hashing
Collision Resolution
  • Open Hashing: After collision, proceed to the next available spot
  • Chaining: Each slot is augmented by a pointer that points to a table which contains overflow space
  • Multiple hashing: A second (different) hash function is applied if collision occurs
  • Insertion, deletion, and retrieval vary based on algorithm used.
  • Chaining is easiest